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Carcinoma medular tiroideo - Overview

Nombres alternativos

Carcinoma medular de la tiroides; Cáncer tiroideo (carcinoma medular); CMT


Es un cáncer de la glándula tiroides que comienza en un tipo de células, denominadas células "C", que liberan una hormona llamada calcitonina.

Causas, incidencia y factores de riesgo:

La causa del carcinoma medular tiroideo (CMT) se desconoce.

A diferencia de otros tipos de cáncer de la tiroides, es menos probable que este tipo de carcinoma sea causado por radioterapia al cuello aplicada para tratar otros cánceres durante la infancia.

Hay dos formas de carcinoma medular tiroideo:

  • Carcinoma medular tiroideo esporádico, el cual no se transmite de padres a hijos. La mayoría de estos carcinomas son esporádicos. Esta forma afecta principalmente a los adultos mayores.
  • Carcinoma medular tiroideo hereditario, el cual se transmite de padres a hijos.

Usted presenta un riesgo mayor de padecer carcinoma medular tiroideo si tiene:

  • Un antecedente familiar de este tipo de carcinoma
  • Antecedentes familiares de neoplasia endocrina múltiple (NEM)
  • Historia previa de feocromocitoma, neuromas de la mucosa o hiperparatiroidismo

Otros tipos de cáncer de tiroides abarcan:

  • Reviewed last on: 3/2/2010
  • David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.


Ladenson P, Kim M. Thyroid. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 244.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Guidelines in Oncology 2010: Thyroid Cancer. Version 1.2010.

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